In this paper we present a broad overview of the last 40 years of research on cognitive architectures. Although the number of existing architectures is nearing several hundred, most of the existing surveys do not reflect this growth and focus on a handful of well-established architectures. While their contributions are undeniable, they represent only a part of the research in the field. Thus, in this survey we wanted to shift the focus towards a more inclusive and high-level overview of the research in cognitive architectures. Our final set of 86 architectures includes 55 that are still actively developed, and borrow from a diverse set of disciplines, spanning areas from psychoanalysis to neuroscience. To keep the length of this paper within reasonable limits we discuss only the core cognitive abilities, such as perception, attention mechanisms, learning and memory structure. To assess the breadth of practical applications of cognitive architectures we gathered information on over 700 practical projects implemented using the cognitive architectures in our list. We use various visualization techniques to highlight overall trends in the development of the field. Our analysis of practical applications shows that most architectures are very narrowly focused on a particular application domain. Furthermore, there is an apparent gap between general research in robotics and computer vision and research in these areas within the cognitive architectures field. It is very clear that biologically inspired models do not have the same range and efficiency compared to the systems based on engineering principles and heuristics. Another observation is related to a general lack of collaboration. Several factors hinder communication, such as the closed nature of the individual projects (only one-third of the reviewed here architectures are open-source) and terminological differences. A Review of 40 Years of Cognitive Architecture Research: Focus on Perception, Attention, Learning and Applications

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