Two one-Sided Tests (TOST) google
Two one-sided tests (TOST) procedure to test equivalence for t-tests, correlations, and meta-analyses, including power analysis for t-tests and correlations. Allows you to specify equivalence bounds in raw scale units or in terms of effect sizes. …

Natural Language Understanding (NLU) google
Natural language understanding (NLU) is a subtopic of natural language processing in artificial intelligence that deals with machine reading comprehension. NLU is considered an AI-hard problem. The process of disassembling and parsing input is more complex than the reverse process of assembling output in natural language generation because of the occurrence of unknown and unexpected features in the input and the need to determine the appropriate syntactic and semantic schemes to apply to it, factors which are pre-determined when outputting language.[dubious – discuss] There is considerable commercial interest in the field because of its application to news-gathering, text categorization, voice-activation, archiving, and large-scale content-analysis. …

Data Profiling google
Data profiling is the process of examining the data available in an existing data source (e.g. a database or a file) and collecting statistics and information about that data. The purpose of these statistics may be to:
1. Find out whether existing data can easily be used for other purposes
2. Improve the ability to search the data by tagging it with keywords, descriptions, or assigning it to a category
3. Give metrics on data quality including whether the data conforms to particular standards or patterns
4. Assess the risk involved in integrating data for new applications, including the challenges of joins
5. Assess whether metadata accurately describes the actual values in the source database
6. Understanding data challenges early in any data intensive project, so that late project surprises are avoided. Finding data problems late in the project can lead to delays and cost overruns.
7. Have an enterprise view of all data, for uses such as master data management where key data is needed, or data governance for improving data quality. …

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