**Specificity**

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as classification function. Sensitivity (also called the true positive rate, or the recall rate in some fields) measures the proportion of actual positives which are correctly identified as such (e.g. the percentage of sick people who are correctly identified as having the condition). Specificity (sometimes called the true negative rate) measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified as such (e.g. the percentage of healthy people who are correctly identified as not having the condition). These two measures are closely related to the concepts of type I and type II errors. A perfect predictor would be described as 100% sensitive (i.e. predicting all people from the sick group as sick) and 100% specific (i.e. not predicting anyone from the healthy group as sick); however, theoretically any predictor will possess a minimum error bound known as the Bayes error rate. … **Real-time IoT Benchmark for Distributed Stream Processing Platforms (RIoTBench)**

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology paradigm where millions of sensors and actuators help monitor and manage, physical, environmental and human systems in real-time. The inherent closedloop responsiveness and decision making of IoT applications make them ideal candidates for using low latency and scalable stream processing platforms. Distributed Stream Processing Systems (DSPS) hosted on Cloud data-centers are becoming the vital engine for real-time data processing and analytics in any IoT software architecture. But the efficacy and performance of contemporary DSPS have not been rigorously studied for IoT applications and data streams. Here, we develop RIoTBench, a Realtime IoT Benchmark suite, along with performance metrics, to evaluate DSPS for streaming IoT applications. The benchmark includes 27 common IoT tasks classified across various functional categories and implemented as reusable micro-benchmarks. Further, we propose four IoT application benchmarks composed from these tasks, and that leverage various dataflow semantics of DSPS. The applications are based on common IoT patterns for data pre-processing, statistical summarization and predictive analytics. These are coupled with four stream workloads sourced from real IoT observations on smart cities and fitness, with peak streams rates that range from 500 to 10000 messages/sec and diverse frequency distributions. We validate the RIoTBench suite for the popular Apache Storm DSPS on the Microsoft Azure public Cloud, and present empirical observations. This suite can be used by DSPS researchers for performance analysis and resource scheduling, and by IoT practitioners to evaluate DSPS platforms. … **Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)**

In statistics, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods (which include random walk Monte Carlo methods) are a class of algorithms for sampling from probability distributions based on constructing a Markov chain that has the desired distribution as its equilibrium distribution. The state of the chain after a large number of steps is then used as a sample of the desired distribution. The quality of the sample improves as a function of the number of steps.

Usually it is not hard to construct a Markov chain with the desired properties. The more difficult problem is to determine how many steps are needed to converge to the stationary distribution within an acceptable error. A good chain will have rapid mixing-the stationary distribution is reached quickly starting from an arbitrary position-described further under Markov chain mixing time

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# If you did not already know

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