Mined Semantic Analysis (MSA) google
Mined Semantic Analysis (MSA) is a novel distributional semantics approach which employs data mining techniques. MSA embraces knowledge-driven analysis of natural languages. It uncovers implicit relations between concepts by mining for their associations in target encyclopedic corpora. MSA exploits not only target corpus content but also its knowledge graph (e.g., ‘See also’ link graph of Wikipedia). Empirical results show competitive performance of MSA compared to prior state-of-the-art methods for measuring semantic relatedness on benchmark data sets. Additionally, we introduce the first analytical study to examine statistical significance of results reported by different semantic relatedness methods. Our study shows that, top performing results could be statistically equivalent though mathematically different. The study positions MSA as one of state-of-the-art methods for measuring semantic relatedness. …

Rule of Five (RO5) google
There is a 93.75% chance that the median of a population is between the smallest and largest values in any random sample of five from that population. …

QGIS google
QGIS (previously known as ‘Quantum GIS’) is a cross-platform free and open-source desktop geographic information system (GIS) application that provides data viewing, editing, and analysis capabilities.Similar to other software GIS systems QGIS allows users to create maps with many layers using different map projections. Maps can be assembled in different formats and for different uses. QGIS allows maps to be composed of raster or vector layers. Typical for this kind of software the vector data is stored as either point, line, or polygon-feature. Different kinds of raster images are supported and the software can perform georeferencing of images. QGIS provides integration with other open source GIS packages, including PostGIS, GRASS, and MapServer to give users extensive functionality. Plugins, written in Python or C++, extend the capabilities of QGIS. There are plugins to geocode using the Google Geocoding API, perform geoprocessing (fTools) similar to the standard tools found in ArcGIS, interface with PostgreSQL/PostGIS, SpatiaLite and MySQL databases. …

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