littler (“little R”) google
littler provides the r program, a simplified command-line interface for GNU R. This allows direct execution of commands, use in piping where the output of one program supplies the input of the next, as well as adding the ability for writing hash-bang scripts, i.e. creating executable files starting with, say, #!/usr/bin/r.
GNU R, a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics, provides a wonderful system for ‘programming with data’ as well as interactive exploratory analysis, often involving graphs. Sometimes, however, simple scripts are desired. While R can be used in batch mode, and while so-called here documents can be crafted, a long-standing need for a scripting front-end has often been expressed by the R Community. littler (pronounced little R and written r) aims to fill this need. …


Self-Adaptive Systems (SAS) google
Self Adaptive Software evaluates its own behavior and changes behavior when the evaluation indicates that it is not accomplishing what the software is intended to do, or when better functionality or performance is possible. …

Predictive State Representation (PSR) google
In computer science, a predictive state representation (PSR) is a way to model a state of controlled dynamical system from a history of actions taken and resulting observations. PSR captures the state of a system as a vector of predictions for future tests (experiments) that can be done on the system. A test is a sequence of action-observation pairs and its prediction is the probability of the test’s observation- sequence happening if the test’s action-sequence were to be executed on the system. One of the advantage of using PSR is that the predictions are directly related to observable quantities. This is in contrast to other models of dynamical systems, such as partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) where the state of the system is represented as a probability distribution over unobserved nominal states. …

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