**Time-to-Event Data**

Time-to-event data, also often referred to as survival data, arise when interest is focused on the time elapsing before an event is experienced. By events we mean occurrences that are of interest in scientific studies from various disciplines such as medicine, epidemiology, demography, biology, sociology, economics, engineering, et cetera. Examples of such events are: death, onset of infection, divorce, unemployment, and failure of a mechanical device. All of these may be subject to scientific interest where one tries to understand their cause or establish risk factors. … **ShotgunWSD**

In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised algorithm for word sense disambiguation (WSD) at the document level. Our algorithm is inspired by a widely-used approach in the field of genetics for whole genome sequencing, known as the Shotgun sequencing technique. The proposed WSD algorithm is based on three main steps. First, a brute-force WSD algorithm is applied to short context windows (up to 10 words) selected from the document in order to generate a short list of likely sense configurations for each window. In the second step, these local sense configurations are assembled into longer composite configurations based on suffix and prefix matching. The resulted configurations are ranked by their length, and the sense of each word is chosen based on a voting scheme that considers only the top k configurations in which the word appears. We compare our algorithm with other state-of-the-art unsupervised WSD algorithms and demonstrate better performance, sometimes by a very large margin. We also show that our algorithm can yield better performance than the Most Common Sense (MCS) baseline on one data set. Moreover, our algorithm has a very small number of parameters, is robust to parameter tuning, and, unlike other bio-inspired methods, it gives a deterministic solution (it does not involve random choices). … **Frailty Model**

Frailty models are extensions of the proportional hazards model which is best known as the Cox model (Cox, 1972), the most popular model in survival analysis. Normally, in most clinical applications, survival analysis implicitly assumes a homogenous population to be studied. This means that all individuals sampled into that study are subject in principle under the same risk (e.g., risk of death, risk of disease recurrence). In many applications, the study population can not be assumed to be homogeneous but must be considered as a heterogeneous sample, i.e. a mixture of individuals with different hazards. For example, in many cases it is impossible to measure all relevant covariates related to the disease of interest, sometimes because of economical reasons, sometimes the importance of some covariates is still unknown. The frailty approach is a statistical modelling concept which aims to account for heterogeneity, caused by unmeasured covariates. In statistical terms, a frailty model is a random effect model for time-to-event data, where the random effect (the frailty) has a multiplicative effect on the baseline hazard function. …

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