**Dose Response Data Analysis using the 4 Parameter Logistic (4PL) Model** (**dr4pl**)

Models the relationship between dose levels and responses in a pharmacological experiment using the 4 Parameter Logistic model. Traditional packages on dose-response modelling such as ‘drc’ and ‘nplr’ often draw errors due to convergence failure especially when data have outliers or non-logistic shapes. This package provides robust estimation methods that are less affected by outliers and other initialization methods that work well for data lacking logistic shapes. We provide the bounds on the parameters of the 4PL model that prevent parameter estimates from diverging or converging to zero and base their justification in a statistical principle. These methods are used as remedies to convergence failure problems. Gadagkar, S. R. and Call, G. B. (2015) <doi:10.1016/j.vascn.2014.08.006> Ritz, C. and Baty, F. and Streibig, J. C. and Gerhard, D. (2015) <doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146021>.

**Continuous-Time Fractionally Integrated ARMA Process for Irregularly Spaced Long-Memory Time Series Data** (**carfima**)

We provide a toolbox to fit a continuous-time fractionally integrated ARMA process (CARFIMA) on univariate and irregularly spaced time series data via frequentist or Bayesian machinery. A general-order CARFIMA(p, H, q) model for p>q is specified in Tsai and Chan (2005)<doi:10.1111/j.1467-9868.2005.00522.x> and it involves p+q+2 unknown model parameters, i.e., p AR parameters, q MA parameters, Hurst parameter H, and process uncertainty (standard deviation) sigma. The package produces their maximum likelihood estimates and asymptotic uncertainties using a global optimizer called the differential evolution algorithm. It also produces their posterior distributions via Metropolis within a Gibbs sampler equipped with adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo for posterior sampling. These fitting procedures, however, may produce numerical errors if p>2. The toolbox also contains a function to simulate discrete time series data from CARFIMA(p, H, q) process given the model parameters and observation times.

**Get XKCD Comic Data** (**XKCDdata**)

Download data from individual XKCD comics, written by Randall Munroe <https://xkcd.com/>.

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