Hidden Markov Model (HMM) google
Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are powerful, flexible methods for representing and classifying data with trends over time. A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved (hidden) states. A HMM can be considered the simplest dynamic Bayesian network. The mathematics behind the HMM was developed by L. E. Baum and coworkers. It is closely related to an earlier work on optimal nonlinear filtering problem (stochastic processes) by Ruslan L. Stratonovich, who was the first to describe the forward-backward procedure.
In simpler Markov models (like a Markov chain), the state is directly visible to the observer, and therefore the state transition probabilities are the only parameters. In a hidden Markov model, the state is not directly visible, but output, dependent on the state, is visible. Each state has a probability distribution over the possible output tokens. Therefore the sequence of tokens generated by an HMM gives some information about the sequence of states. Note that the adjective ‘hidden’ refers to the state sequence through which the model passes, not to the parameters of the model; the model is still referred to as a ‘hidden’ Markov model even if these parameters are known exactly.
Hidden Markov models are especially known for their application in temporal pattern recognition such as speech, handwriting, gesture recognition, part-of-speech tagging, musical score following, partial discharges and bioinformatics.

Tensor Network Language Model google
We propose a new statistical model suitable for machine learning tasks of systems with long distance correlations such as human languages. The model is based on directed acyclic graph decorated by multi-linear tensor maps in the vertices and vector spaces in the edges, called tensor network. Such tensor networks have been previously employed for effective numerical computation of the renormalization group flow on the space of effective quantum field theories and lattice models of statistical mechanics. We provide explicit algebro-geometric analysis of the parameter moduli space for tree graphs, discuss model properties and applications such as statistical translation. …

Wasserstein GAN (WGAN) google
We introduce a new algorithm named WGAN, an alternative to traditional GAN training. In this new model, we show that we can improve the stability of learning, get rid of problems like mode collapse, and provide meaningful learning curves useful for debugging and hyperparameter searches. Furthermore, we show that the corresponding optimization problem is sound, and provide extensive theoretical work highlighting the deep connections to other distances between distributions. …