Stochastic Activation Pruning (SAP) google
Neural networks are known to be vulnerable to adversarial examples. Carefully chosen perturbations to real images, while imperceptible to humans, induce misclassification and threaten the reliability of deep learning systems in the wild. To guard against adversarial examples, we take inspiration from game theory and cast the problem as a minimax zero-sum game between the adversary and the model. In general, for such games, the optimal strategy for both players requires a stochastic policy, also known as a mixed strategy. In this light, we propose Stochastic Activation Pruning (SAP), a mixed strategy for adversarial defense. SAP prunes a random subset of activations (preferentially pruning those with smaller magnitude) and scales up the survivors to compensate. We can apply SAP to pretrained networks, including adversarially trained models, without fine-tuning, providing robustness against adversarial examples. Experiments demonstrate that SAP confers robustness against attacks, increasing accuracy and preserving calibration. …

Graph Convolutional Neural Network (Graph CNN) google
Graph Convolutional Neural Networks (Graph CNNs) are generalizations of classical CNNs to handle graph data such as molecular data, point could and social networks. Current filters in graph CNNs are built for fixed and shared graph structure. However, for most real data, the graph structures varies in both size and connectivity. The paper proposes a generalized and flexible graph CNN taking data of arbitrary graph structure as input. In that way a task-driven adaptive graph is learned for each graph data while training. To efficiently learn the graph, a distance metric learning is proposed. Extensive experiments on nine graph-structured datasets have demonstrated the superior performance improvement on both convergence speed and predictive accuracy. …

Lorenz Curve google
In economics, the Lorenz curve is a graphical representation of the cumulative distribution function of the empirical probability distribution of wealth or income, and was developed by Max O. Lorenz in 1905 for representing inequality of the wealth distribution. The curve is a graph showing the proportion of overall income or wealth assumed by the bottom x% of the people, although this is not rigorously true for a finite population (see below). It is often used to represent income distribution, where it shows for the bottom x% of households, what percentage (y%) of the total income they have. The percentage of households is plotted on the x-axis, the percentage of income on the y-axis. It can also be used to show distribution of assets. In such use, many economists consider it to be a measure of social inequality. The concept is useful in describing inequality among the size of individuals in ecology and in studies of biodiversity, where the cumulative proportion of species is plotted against the cumulative proportion of individuals. It is also useful in business modeling: e.g., in consumer finance, to measure the actual percentage y% of delinquencies attributable to the x% of people with worst risk scores. …

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