Noisy Expectation Maximization (NEM) google
We present a noise-injected version of the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm: the Noisy Expectation Maximization (NEM) algorithm. The NEM algorithm uses noise to speed up the convergence of the EM algorithm. The NEM theorem shows that injected noise speeds up the average convergence of the EM algorithm to a local maximum of the likelihood surface if a positivity condition holds. The generalized form of the noisy expectation-maximization (NEM) algorithm allow for arbitrary modes of noise injection including adding and multiplying noise to the data. We demonstrate these noise benefits on EM algorithms for the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with both additive and multiplicative NEM noise injection. A separate theorem (not presented here) shows that the noise benefit for independent identically distributed additive noise decreases with sample size in mixture models. This theorem implies that the noise benefit is most pronounced if the data is sparse. Injecting blind noise only slowed convergence. …

Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (MNER) google
We introduce a new task called Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (MNER) for noisy user-generated data such as tweets or Snapchat captions, which comprise short text with accompanying images. These social media posts often come in inconsistent or incomplete syntax and lexical notations with very limited surrounding textual contexts, bringing significant challenges for NER. To this end, we create a new dataset for MNER called SnapCaptions (Snapchat image-caption pairs submitted to public and crowd-sourced stories with fully annotated named entities). We then build upon the state-of-the-art Bi-LSTM word/character based NER models with 1) a deep image network which incorporates relevant visual context to augment textual information, and 2) a generic modality-attention module which learns to attenuate irrelevant modalities while amplifying the most informative ones to extract contexts from, adaptive to each sample and token. The proposed MNER model with modality attention significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art text-only NER models by successfully leveraging provided visual contexts, opening up potential applications of MNER on myriads of social media platforms. …

Intention Analysis google
Intention Analysis is the identification of intentions from text, be it the intention to purchase or the intention to sell or to complain, accuse, inquire, opine, advocate or to quit, in incoming customer messages or in call center transcripts.
Intention analysis using topic models