Pachinko Allocation Model (PAM) google
In machine learning and natural language processing, the pachinko allocation model (PAM) is a topic model. Topic models are a suite of algorithms to uncover the hidden thematic structure of a collection of documents. The algorithm improves upon earlier topic models such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) by modeling correlations between topics in addition to the word correlations which constitute topics. PAM provides more flexibility and greater expressive power than latent Dirichlet allocation. While first described and implemented in the context of natural language processing, the algorithm may have applications in other fields such as bioinformatics. The model is named for pachinko machines – a game popular in Japan, in which metal balls bounce down around a complex collection of pins until they land in various bins at the bottom.

Wiener Process google
In mathematics, the Wiener process is a continuous-time stochastic process named in honor of Norbert Wiener. It is often called standard Brownian motion, after Robert Brown. It is one of the best known Lévy processes (càdlàg stochastic processes with stationary independent increments) and occurs frequently in pure and applied mathematics, economics, quantitative finance, and physics. The Wiener process plays an important role both in pure and applied mathematics. In pure mathematics, the Wiener process gave rise to the study of continuous time martingales. It is a key process in terms of which more complicated stochastic processes can be described. As such, it plays a vital role in stochastic calculus, diffusion processes and even potential theory. It is the driving process of Schramm-Loewner evolution. In applied mathematics, the Wiener process is used to represent the integral of a Gaussian white noise process, and so is useful as a model of noise in electronics engineering, instrument errors in filtering theory and unknown forces in control theory. The Wiener process has applications throughout the mathematical sciences. In physics it is used to study Brownian motion, the diffusion of minute particles suspended in fluid, and other types of diffusion via the Fokker-Planck and Langevin equations. It also forms the basis for the rigorous path integral formulation of quantum mechanics (by the Feynman-Kac formula, a solution to the Schrödinger equation can be represented in terms of the Wiener process) and the study of eternal inflation in physical cosmology. It is also prominent in the mathematical theory of finance, in particular the Black-Scholes option pricing model. …

Deep Transfer Network (DTN) google
In recent years, an increasing popularity of deep learning model for intelligent condition monitoring and diagnosis as well as prognostics used for mechanical systems and structures has been observed. In the previous studies, however, a major assumption accepted by default, is that the training and testing data are taking from same feature distribution. Unfortunately, this assumption is mostly invalid in real application, resulting in a certain lack of applicability for the traditional diagnosis approaches. Inspired by the idea of transfer learning that leverages the knowledge learnt from rich labeled data in source domain to facilitate diagnosing a new but similar target task, a new intelligent fault diagnosis framework, i.e., deep transfer network (DTN), which generalizes deep learning model to domain adaptation scenario, is proposed in this paper. By extending the marginal distribution adaptation (MDA) to joint distribution adaptation (JDA), the proposed framework can exploit the discrimination structures associated with the labeled data in source domain to adapt the conditional distribution of unlabeled target data, and thus guarantee a more accurate distribution matching. Extensive empirical evaluations on three fault datasets validate the applicability and practicability of DTN, while achieving many state-of-the-art transfer results in terms of diverse operating conditions, fault severities and fault types. …