Deep Quaternion Network google
The field of deep learning has seen significant advancement in recent years. However, much of the existing work has been focused on real-valued numbers. Recent work has shown that a deep learning system using the complex numbers can be deeper for a set parameter budget compared to its real-valued counterpart. In this work, we explore the benefits of generalizing one step further into the hyper-complex numbers, quaternions specifically, and provide the architecture components needed to build deep quaternion networks. We go over quaternion convolutions, present a quaternion weight initialization scheme, and present algorithms for quaternion batch-normalization. These pieces are tested by end-to-end training on the CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 data sets to show the improved convergence to a real-valued network. …

SAFFRON google
In the online false discovery rate (FDR) problem, one observes a possibly infinite sequence of $p$-values $P_1,P_2,\dots$, each testing a different null hypothesis, and an algorithm must pick a sequence of rejection thresholds $\alpha_1,\alpha_2,\dots$ in an online fashion, effectively rejecting the $k$-th null hypothesis whenever $P_k \leq \alpha_k$. Importantly, $\alpha_k$ must be a function of the past, and cannot depend on $P_k$ or any of the later unseen $p$-values, and must be chosen to guarantee that for any time $t$, the FDR up to time $t$ is less than some pre-determined quantity $\alpha \in (0,1)$. In this work, we present a powerful new framework for online FDR control that we refer to as SAFFRON. Like older alpha-investing (AI) algorithms, SAFFRON starts off with an error budget, called alpha-wealth, that it intelligently allocates to different tests over time, earning back some wealth on making a new discovery. However, unlike older methods, SAFFRON’s threshold sequence is based on a novel estimate of the alpha fraction that it allocates to true null hypotheses. In the offline setting, algorithms that employ an estimate of the proportion of true nulls are called adaptive methods, and SAFFRON can be seen as an online analogue of the famous offline Storey-BH adaptive procedure. Just as Storey-BH is typically more powerful than the Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) procedure under independence, we demonstrate that SAFFRON is also more powerful than its non-adaptive counterparts, such as LORD and other generalized alpha-investing algorithms. Further, a monotone version of the original AI algorithm is recovered as a special case of SAFFRON, that is often more stable and powerful than the original. Lastly, the derivation of SAFFRON provides a novel template for deriving new online FDR rules. …

Wiener Polarity Index google
The Wiener polarity index Wp(G) of a graph G is the number of unordered pairs of vertices {u,v} in G such that the distance between u and v is equal to 3. …

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