**Pareto Depth Analysis (PDA)**

We consider the problem of identifying patterns in a data set that exhibit anomalous behavior, often referred to as anomaly detection. Similarity-based anomaly detection algorithms detect abnormally large amounts of similarity or dissimilarity, e.g.~as measured by nearest neighbor Euclidean distances between a test sample and the training samples. In many application domains there may not exist a single dissimilarity measure that captures all possible anomalous patterns. In such cases, multiple dissimilarity measures can be defined, including non-metric measures, and one can test for anomalies by scalarizing using a non-negative linear combination of them. If the relative importance of the different dissimilarity measures are not known in advance, as in many anomaly detection applications, the anomaly detection algorithm may need to be executed multiple times with different choices of weights in the linear combination. In this paper, we propose a method for similarity-based anomaly detection using a novel multi-criteria dissimilarity measure, the Pareto depth. The proposed Pareto depth analysis (PDA) anomaly detection algorithm uses the concept of Pareto optimality to detect anomalies under multiple criteria without having to run an algorithm multiple times with different choices of weights. The proposed PDA approach is provably better than using linear combinations of the criteria and shows superior performance on experiments with synthetic and real data sets. … **Inverse Classification**

Inverse classification is the process of perturbing an instance in a meaningful way such that it is more likely to conform to a specific class. Historical methods that address such a problem are often framed to leverage only a single classifier, or specific set of classifiers. These works are often accompanied by naive assumptions. In this work we propose generalized inverse classification (GIC), which avoids restricting the classification model that can be used. We incorporate this formulation into a refined framework in which GIC takes place. Under this framework, GIC operates on features that are immediately actionable. Each change incurs an individual cost, either linear or non-linear. Such changes are subjected to occur within a specified level of cumulative change (budget). Furthermore, our framework incorporates the estimation of features that change as a consequence of direct actions taken (indirectly changeable features). To solve such a problem, we propose three real-valued heuristic-based methods and two sensitivity analysis-based comparison methods, each of which is evaluated on two freely available real-world datasets. Our results demonstrate the validity and benefits of our formulation, framework, and methods. … **Projection Matrix**

A projection matrix P is an nxn square matrix that gives a vector space projection from Rn to a subspace W. The columns of P are the projections of the standard basis vectors, and W is the image of P. A square matrix P is a projection matrix iff P^2 = P. …

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**25**
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May 2018

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