DISPATCH google
This work presents the first algorithm for the problem of weighted online perfect bipartite matching with i.i.d. arrivals. Previous work only considered adversarial arrival sequences. In this problem, we are given a known set of workers, a distribution over job types, and non-negative utility weights for each worker, job type pair. At each time step, a job is drawn i.i.d. from the distribution over job types. Upon arrival, the job must be irrevocably assigned to a worker. The goal is to maximize the expected sum of utilities after all jobs are assigned. Our work is motivated by the application of ride-hailing, where jobs represent passengers and workers represent drivers. We introduce \algname{}, a 0.5-competitive, randomized algorithm and prove that 0.5-competitive is the best possible. \algname{} first selects a ‘preferred worker’ and assign the job to this worker if it is available. The preferred worker is determined based on an optimal solution to a fractional transportation problem. If the preferred worker is not available, \algname{} randomly selects a worker from the available workers. We show that \algname{} maintains a uniform distribution over the workers even when the distribution over the job types is non-uniform. …

Graph Bayesian Optimization google
Network structure optimization is a fundamental task in complex network analysis. However, almost all the research on Bayesian optimization is aimed at optimizing the objective functions with vectorial inputs. In this work, we first present a flexible framework, denoted graph Bayesian optimization, to handle arbitrary graphs in the Bayesian optimization community. By combining the proposed framework with graph kernels, it can take full advantage of implicit graph structural features to supplement explicit features guessed according to the experience, such as tags of nodes and any attributes of graphs. The proposed framework can identify which features are more important during the optimization process. We apply the framework to solve four problems including two evaluations and two applications to demonstrate its efficacy and potential applications. …

Game Theory google
Game theory is the study of strategic decision making. Specifically, it is ‘the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers.’ An alternative term suggested ‘as a more descriptive name for the discipline’ is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science, and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person’s gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant or participants. Today, however, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and has developed into an umbrella term for the logical side of decision science, including both humans and non-humans (e.g. computers, animals). Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann’s original proof used Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics. His paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty. This theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. Game theory was later explicitly applied to biology in the 1970s, although similar developments go back at least as far as the 1930s. Game theory has been widely recognized as an important tool in many fields. With the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences going to game theorist Jean Tirole in 2014, eleven game-theorists have now won the economics Nobel Prize. John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology. …

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