Black Hole Metric google
In network science, there is often the need to sort the graph nodes. While the sorting strategy may be different, in general sorting is performed by exploiting the network structure. In particular, the metric PageRank has been used in the past decade in different ways to produce a ranking based on how many neighbors point to a specific node. PageRank is simple, easy to compute and effective in many applications, however it comes with a price: as PageRank is an application of the random walker, the arc weights need to be normalized. This normalization, while necessary, introduces a series of unwanted side-effects. In this paper, we propose a generalization of PageRank named Black Hole Metric which mitigates the problem. We devise a scenario in which the side-effects are particularily impactful on the ranking, test the new metric in both real and synthetic networks, and show the results. …

Distributed Dynamic Data-intensive Science (D3 Science) google
A common feature across many science and engineering applications is the amount and diversity of data and computation that must be integrated to yield insights. Data sets are growing larger and becoming distributed; and their location, availability and properties are often time-dependent. Collectively, these characteristics give rise to dynamic distributed data-intensive applications. While ‘static’ data applications have received significant attention, the characteristics, requirements, and software systems for the analysis of large volumes of dynamic, distributed data, and data-intensive applications have received relatively less attention. This paper surveys several representative dynamic distributed data-intensive application scenarios, provides a common conceptual framework to understand them, and examines the infrastructure used in support of applications. …

Bias of an Estimator google
In statistics, the bias (or bias function) of an estimator is the difference between this estimator’s expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated. An estimator or decision rule with zero bias is called unbiased. Otherwise the estimator is said to be biased. In statistics, ‘bias’ is an objective property of an estimator, and while not a desired property, it is not pejorative, unlike the ordinary English use of the term ‘bias’. Bias can also be measured with respect to the median, rather than the mean (expected value), in which case one distinguishes median-unbiased from the usual mean-unbiasedness property. Bias is related to consistency in that consistent estimators are convergent and asymptotically unbiased (hence converge to the correct value as the number of data points grows arbitrarily large), though individual estimators in a consistent sequence may be biased (so long as the bias converges to zero); see bias versus consistency. …

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