In this paper, we introduce and provide a short overview of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Several aspects of NMF are discussed, namely, the application in hyperspectral imaging, geometry and uniqueness of NMF solutions, complexity, algorithms, and its link with extended formulations of polyhedra. In order to put NMF into perspective, the more general problem class of constrained low-rank matrix approximation problems is first briefly introduced. Introduction to Nonnegative Matrix Factorization